What is motherboard and its functions?

In this article, you will know what is Motherboard and what is its work? We all use computers in our everyday life and a motherboard is the most major component of the computer. It is also known by other names like main circuit board, mainboard, system board, baseboard, and logic board. It’s not that the motherboard is just part of the computer. The motherboard is also found inside phones, which we know as the logic board.

Ever since the invention of the computer, the motherboard has been an important part of it. Although the old motherboard had only a few components. For example, only processor and card slot were present in the first PC Motherboard made by IBM. But if you look at today’s motherboard, you will find different types of features in it. This is the reason, that today’s computer is so capable.

In this post we will tell you what is motherboard and its functions? Will give complete information about this. Along with this, we will also tell you in detail about the main parts of the computer motherboard and their functions so that you can get complete information about the motherboard. So let’s first know, what is a motherboard? Then we will talk about its other aspects.

What is motherboard?

Motherboard is a ” Main Printed Circuit Board (PCB) ” present in the computer. Which connects various internal components and provides connectors to connect external peripherals to the computer. It is considered the most important part of the computer system. If you look at the picture of a motherboard, then you will see a circuit board of green color in which a lot of equipment will be attached.

Some important equipment connected to the motherboard includes connectors for connecting the Central Processing Unit (CPU) , RAM , Hard disk and I/O devices ( Keyboard , Mouse , Monitor, USB devices etc.). If seen, from supplying power in the computer to making communication between other hardware components, all the work is done by the motherboard. Even every part of the computer is connected to the motherboard in one way or the other.

 Functions of Motherboard

Some of the major functions of the motherboard:

  • Central Backbone: The motherboard is often called the backbone of the computer. That is because other essential components of the computer such as RAM, hard disk, CPU, etc. are all installed in the motherboard. That is, the motherboard serves as the ground for all computer hardware.
  • Providing Slots for External Peripherals: There are many expansion slots in the motherboard to connect external devices to the computer. With the help of these slots, you can add extra expansion card (network card, sound card, firewire card, ethernet card, lane card, etc.) to the computer.
  • Work of Power Supply in Computer: The work of power supply for various components of the computer is also done by the motherboard. First of all, with the help of a power connector, power reaches the motherboard, and after that power is supplied to various components connected to the motherboard.
  • Controlling Data Flow: The motherboard acts as a communication hub for all the components connected to it. It is responsible for managing the information traffic within the computer system. In simple language, all devices can receive and send data among themselves with the help of a motherboard.
  • BIOS: It also holds the BIOS program, which is located on the ROM chip on the motherboard . This program is necessary for the boot process of the computer system.


Types of Motherboard 

Along with the development of computers, there have been changes in the capacity and size of the motherboard. We have different types of motherboard available and all of them are different from each other. So let’s know about them in detail.

AT Motherboard

The name of AT Motherboard comes in the oldest motherboard used in Computer, it is also called “Full AT”. AT means, Advance technology means power connectors of new technology are present in the board. Each mount of the motherboard had two power connectors of 6 pin. The length of the motherboard was 351mm and the width was 305mm. Due to its size, this motherboard did not fit in mini desktop.

Due to this dimensions of the motherboard, it was difficult to install new drives in it. This motherboard was made by IBM in the 1980s. After which the AT motherboard and its variants (Baby AT) maintained a good hold in the computer market for several decades. But after 1997 the AT form factor was replaced by ATX.

ATX Motherboard

ATX Motherboard (Advanced technology extended) was introduced by Intel around the 1990s. It was very different from the motherboard of the AT family. The ATX was also significantly smaller in size (305×204mm) than the older motherboards. Advance control facilities were available in this type of motherboard. Apart from this, many other important changes were also made in the ATX Motherboard.

Like- a keyboard connector was added and extra slots were given for various add-ons in the rear plats. In this, power management could be done with the help of BIOS program. Due to various features, ATX is still used today. The ATX family also includes Full ATX, Micro ATX, and Flex ATX motherboards.

Mini ITX Motherboard

This type of motherboard is used in small form factor computer systems. It was created in 2001 by VIA Technologies. The size of Mini ITX is 6.7 × 6.7 inches, which is smaller than any other motherboard. Due to the small size and fan-less cooling, this motherboard consumes the least power. Due to the small size of the motherboard, there are only a few USB connectors in it. Apart from this, the number of PCI slots is also the same. Overall it is fully used in a small size PC.

Apart from this, many types of motherboards are available, but the above-mentioned motherboards are mostly used. So till now you know what is computer motherboard and what works? Along with this, we have also given you information about some major types of motherboards. Let us now know about the names and functions of the important parts installed on the motherboard.

Main parts of the motherboard and their functions

The computer motherboard is like a platform for connecting all the parts of the computer together. Below are the names of those parts and their functions.

  1. CPU Socket: This is the most important socket installed in the motherboard, because the CPU (Central Processing Unit) ie computer brain is fitted in it. It is also called processor, whose job is to fetch program instructions, process them and transfer data.
  2. RAM Slots: The place in the computer where RAM (Random Access Memory) is installed. RAM keeps dynamic data temporarily stored to increase computer performance.
  3. I/O Ports : These ports present in the motherboard work to connect the Input/ Output Device of the computer to the computer. These include various ports like – HDMI Port (know what is HDMI ) to connect keyboard, mouse, mic , speaker, monitor, USB devices, Ethernet network cable and headphones .
  4. North Bridge Chipset: North Bridge or host bridge is a Microchip, which is directly connected to CPU. Its job is to manage RAM, hard disk and PCI devices. In the new motherboard, it is present under the heat sink.
  5. South-Bridge Chipset: It is also called IC chip , which connects to the north-bridge. It works to control all input / output functions.
  6. Power Connector: This is a 20-24 pin power connector. Which connects to SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) . Its job is to draw electricity and supply power to the motherboard. You can say, the work of power supply required to operate the computer system is done by these connectors.
  7. Expansion Card Slots: Those slots in the motherboard where you can install additional cards. This comes in handy when you want to upgrade your PC. These card slots are known as AGP slots (Accelerated Graphics Port) and PCI slots. With their help, you can install the extra graphic card, audio cards, network card, and modem card in your motherboard.
  8. IDE Connector: IDE, whose full name is Integrated Drive Electronics, is responsible for controlling hard disk and optical disc devices ( CD, DVD) inside the computer. However, today new types of connectors are used in the motherboard, which includes the SATA connector. It is a 7-pin connector as compared to IDE’s 40-pin.
  9. CMOS Battery: Its full form is Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor. This is a battery-operated chip, which stores information like date and time and hardware settings.
  10. Heat Sink: It is a metal device, which absorbs the high temperature when the motherboard heats up. Due to this the heated parts do not get overheated and they can work properly. It is installed above the North Bridge in the motherboard.

Apart from this, many small other parts are also installed in the motherboard. After knowing so much, you must have understood one thing what is the role of a computer motherboard. Let’s finally take a look at what are the features of the motherboard.

Features of Motherboard – Characteristics

The importance of a Motherboard in a computer is more than any other computer hardware. However, each component is important for the proper functioning of the computer. Let us tell you, which features of the motherboard make it the most important part of the computer. As we told you, the motherboard is a circuit board on which all the important internal computer hardware like CPU etc. are installed.

A motherboard not only provides space for those components to sit but also makes them communicate with the CPU so that they can share data among themselves. Along with this, there are many slots in the motherboard, which work to connect external devices like mouse to the computer. By which you give input to the computer and provide output.

The motherboard also serves as the necessary power supply for all computer components connected to it. That is, from starting the computer to operating it, the utility of the motherboard cannot be denied at all. If we consider the CPU as the brain of the computer, then the motherboard is its nervous system.


In this post, you have come to know what is Motherboard and what is its function? If you are a student of computer science or want to understand computer better, then the motherboard is an important topic. Hopefully, the information about motherboards given by us has helped you to understand it. Nevertheless, if you have any questions or suggestions related to this, please tell us through comments.


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